What is food mineral?

Minerals are inorganic elements that originate in the earth and cannot be made in the body. They play important roles in various bodily functions and are necessary to sustain life and maintain optimal health, and thus are essential nutrients.

Tuesday, May 16, 2023

Manganism - Excess accumulation of manganese

Manganese is essential for humans and animals and daily requirements are commonly met by an adequate diet. Legumes, rice, nuts and whole grains contain the highest levels of the metal.

Manganese exists in both inorganic and organic forms. An essential ingredient in steel, inorganic manganese is also used in the production of dry-cell batteries, glass and fireworks.

The inorganic pigment known as manganese violet (manganese ammonium pyrophosphate complex) has nearly ubiquitous use in cosmetics and is also found in certain paints. Manganese is essential to human health, acting as a co-factor in the active centers of various enzymes, and is required for normal development, maintenance of nerve and immune cell functions, and regulation of blood sugar and vitamins, among other functions.

Normal ranges of manganese levels in body fluids are 4–15 μg/L in blood, 1–8 μg/L in urine, and 0.4–0.85 μg/L in serum. Excess manganese is transported to the liver and released into the bile, which is passed back into the gut and removed with the stool. About 80% of manganese is eliminated this way, while small amounts can also be removed with urine, sweat, and breast milk.

Excess manganese in the body characteristically accumulates in the brain region known as the basal ganglia.

This accumulation can be revealed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a distinctive symmetrical high-signal lesion in the globus pallidus region of the basal ganglia on T1- but not T2-weighted MRI.

Manganese toxicity has been associated with dopaminergic dysfunction by recent neurochemical analyses and synchrotron X-ray fluorescent imaging studies. Evidence from humans indicates that individual factors such as age, gender, ethnicity, genetics, and pre-existing medical conditions can have profound impacts on manganese toxicities.

Manganese toxicity can result in a permanent neurological disorder known as manganism. Symptoms of manganism include:
*Cognitive impairment
*Balance and gait problems
*Speech impairment
*Generalized muscle weakness
These symptoms are often preceded by other lesser symptoms, including irritability, aggressiveness, and hallucinations.
Manganism - Excess accumulation of manganese

The Most Popular Articles

Selected articles