What is food mineral?

Minerals are inorganic elements that originate in the earth and cannot be made in the body. They play important roles in various bodily functions and are necessary to sustain life and maintain optimal health, and thus are essential nutrients.

Monday, July 16, 2018

Symptoms of Wilson's disease

Wilson disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder caused by dysfunction of the copper transporter ATP7B, which is expressed mainly in hepatocytes and is critical for hepatic copper homeostasis. Subsequent copper accumulation, first in the liver but ultimately in the brain and other tissues, produces protean clinical manifestations that may include hepatic, neurological, psychiatric, ophthalmological, and other derangements,

It has been estimated that there are ~600 cases of Wilson’s disease in the United States and that ~ 1% of the population are carriers.

Wilson’s disease may present symptomatically at any age, although the majority presents between ages 5 and 35. The youngest patient reported with cirrhosis due to Wilson’s disease was 3-years-old. Many patients have a combination of symptoms. WD often presents in children as chronic liver disease with abnormal liver tests. Liver pathology ranges widely, from hepatic steatosis to acute and chronic hepatitis to cirrhosis. As WD progresses, many patients develop complications of portal hypertension and liver failure. Acute liver failure (ALF) due to WD develops in about 5% of patients.

Patients with WD are more likely to present with neurologic or psychiatric manifestations in their second or third decade of life. Some patients have symptoms of liver disease as well. Neurologic symptoms may be subtle or rapidly progressive, leading to severe disability over weeks to months.

The clinical hallmark of Wilson’s disease is the Kayser–Fleischer ring, which is present in 95% of patients with neurologic symptoms and somewhat over half of those without neurologic symptoms. In children presenting with liver disease, Kayser–Fleischer rings are usually absent. Kayser–Fleischer rings are caused by deposition of copper in Des├žemet’s membrane of the cornea.
Symptoms of Wilson's disease

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